Each Agency has an Office of Inspector General (OIG) which seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their agency's programs and operations. OIG also endeavors to detect and deter waste, fraud, and abuse. OIG monitors and tracks the use of taxpayer dollars through audits, inspections, evaluations, and investigations.
Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB)
Established by the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) became operational as an independent oversight agency within the executive branch during in 2013. The chairman and four board members are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
The PCLOB has both a consultative and an oversight role regarding P/CR/CL in the Federal Government's development and use of the ISE. The PCLOB has two primary purposes:
1) to analyze and review actions the executive branch takes to protect the U.S. from terrorism, ensuring that the need for such actions is balanced with the need to protect privacy and civil liberties; and
2) to ensure that liberty concerns are appropriately considered in the development and implementation of laws, regulations, and policies related to efforts to protect the Nation against terrorism.
Government Accounting Office (GAO)
"The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress." Often called the "congressional watchdog," GAO investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars.
As with many programs, GAO monitors federal efforts to implement the Information Sharing Environment (Environment). Periodically the GAO has investigated various issues related to the ISE and issued reports that provide useful overviews.
Office of Inspector General (OIG)
The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) conducts independent investigations, audits, inspections, and special reviews of IC programs and activities that are the responsibility of and under the authority of the DNI to detect and deter waste, fraud, abuse, and misconduct, and to promote integrity, economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the IC. The Inspector General for the IC leads the OIG, chairs the IC Inspectors General Forum, receives and investigates allegations of IC activities constituting a violation of laws, rules, or regulations; mismanagement; gross waste of funds; abuse of authority; or a substantial and specific danger to the public health and safety. The Inspector General for the IC accepts and processes notifications from IC employees or contractors who are intending to report an urgent concern to the U.S. Congress.
The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is a government-wide approach that creates standards and processes for information exchange. NIEM allows different entities to "speak the same language" by providing a common vocabulary and framework for a more efficient sharing of critical information. It is managed by a Program Management Office and an Executive Steering Council. NIEM, for example, provides fusion centers with technological capabilities and entity support to standardize suspicious activity reporting across a variety of different jurisdictions.